If you are a teacher then please also visit my new site: intermathematics.com for over 2000+ pdf pages of resources for teaching IB maths!

**Measuring the Distance to the Stars**

This is a very nice example of some very simple mathematics achieving something which for centuries appeared impossible – measuring the distance to the stars. Before we start we need a few definitions:

- 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) is the average distance from the Sun to the Earth. This is around 150,000,000km.
- 1 Light Year is the distance that light travels in one year. This is around 9,500,000,000,000km. We have around 63000AU = 1 Light Year.
- 1 arc second is measurement for very small angles and is 1/3600 of one degree.
- Parallax is the angular difference in measurement when viewing an object from different locations. In astronomy parallax is used to mean the half the angle formed when a star is viewed from opposite sides of the Earth’s solar orbit (marked on the diagram below).

With those definitions it is easy to then find the distance to stars. The parallax method requires that you take a measurement of the angle to a given star, and then wait until 6 months later and take the same measurement. The two angles will be slightly different – divide this difference by 2 and you have the parallax.

Let’s take 61 Cyngi – which Friedrick Bessel first used this method on in the early 1800s. This has a parallax of 287/1000 arc seconds. This is equivalent to 287/1000 x 1/3600 degree or approximately 0.000080 degrees. So now we can simply use trigonometry – we have a right angled triangle with opposite side = 1 AU and angle = 0.0000080. Therefore the distance is given by:

tanΦ = opp/adj

tan(0.000080) = 1/d

d = 1/tan(0.000080)

d = 720000 AU

which is approximately 720000/63000 = 11 light years away.

That’s pretty incredible! Using this method and armed with nothing more than a telescope and knowledge of the Earth’s orbital diameter, astronomers were able to judge the distance of stars in faraway parts of the universe – indeed they used this method to prove that other galaxies apart from our own also existed.

**Orion’s Belt**

The constellation of Orion is one of the most striking in the Northern Hemisphere. It contains the “belt” of 3 stars in a line, along with the brightly shining Rigel and the red super giant Betelgeuse. The following 2 graphics are taken from the great student resource from the Royal Observatory Greenwich:

The angles marked in the picture are in arc seconds – so to convert them into degrees we need to multiply by 1/3600. For example, Betelgeuse the red giant has a parallax of 0.0051 x 1/3600 = 0.0000014 (2sf) degrees. Therefore the distance to Betelgeuse is:

tanΦ = opp/adj

tan(0.0000014) = 1/d

d = 1/tan(0.0000014)

d = 41,000,000 AU

which is approximately 41,000,000/63000 = 651 light years away. If we were more accurate with our rounding we would get 643 light years. That means that when we look into the sky we are seeing Betelgeuse as it was 643 years ago.

Essential resources for IB students:

Revision Village has been put together to help IB students with topic revision both for during the course and for the end of Year 12 school exams and Year 13 final exams. I would strongly recommend students use this as a resource during the course (not just for final revision in Y13!) There are specific resources for HL and SL students for both Analysis and Applications.

There is a comprehensive Questionbank takes you to a breakdown of each main subject area (e.g. Algebra, Calculus etc) and then provides a large bank of graded questions. What I like about this is that you are given a difficulty rating, as well as a mark scheme and also a worked video tutorial. Really useful!

The Practice Exams section takes you to a large number of ready made quizzes, exams and predicted papers. These all have worked solutions and allow you to focus on specific topics or start general revision. This also has some excellent challenging questions for those students aiming for 6s and 7s.

**Essential Resources for IB Teachers**

If you are a **teacher** then please also visit my new site. This has been designed specifically for teachers of mathematics at international schools. The content now includes over **2000 pages of pdf content** for the entire SL and HL Analysis syllabus and also the SL Applications syllabus. Some of the content includes:

**Original pdf worksheets**(with full worked solutions) designed to cover all the syllabus topics. These make great homework sheets or in class worksheets – and are each designed to last between 40 minutes and 1 hour.**Original Paper 3 investigations**(with full worked solutions) to develop investigative techniques and support both the exploration and the Paper 3 examination.- Over 150 pages of
**Coursework Guides**to introduce students to the essentials behind getting an excellent mark on their exploration coursework. - A large number of
**enrichment activities**such as treasure hunts, quizzes, investigations, Desmos explorations, Python coding and more – to engage IB learners in the course.

There is also a lot more. I think this could save teachers 200+ hours of preparation time in delivering an IB maths course – so it should be well worth exploring!

**Essential Resources for both IB teachers and IB students**

1) Exploration Guides and Paper 3 Resources

I’ve put together a **168 page** Super Exploration Guide to talk students and teachers through all aspects of producing an excellent coursework submission. Students always make the same mistakes when doing their coursework – get the inside track from an IB moderator! I have also made **Paper 3 packs** for HL Analysis and also Applications students to help prepare for their Paper 3 exams. The Exploration Guides can be downloaded here and the Paper 3 Questions can be downloaded here.

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