If you are a teacher then please also visit my new site: intermathematics.com for over 2000+ pdf pages of resources for teaching IB maths!

**A geometric proof for the Arithmetic and Geometric Mean**

There is more than one way to define the mean of a number. The arithmetic mean is the mean we learn at secondary school – for 2 numbers a and b it is:

(a + b) /2.

The geometric mean on the other hand is defined as:

(x_{1}.x_{2}.x_{3}…x_{n})^{1/n}

So for example with the numbers 1,2,3 the geometric mean is (1 x 2 x 3)^{1/3}.

With 2 numbers, a and b, the geometric mean is (ab)^{1/2}.

We can then use the above diagram to prove that (a + b) /2 ≥ (ab)^{1/2} for all a and b. Indeed this inequality holds more generally and it can be proved that the Arithmetic mean ≥ Geometric mean.

Step (1) We draw a triangle as above, with the line MQ a diameter, and therefore angle MNQ a right angle (from the circle theorems). Let MP be the length a, and let PQ be the length b.

Step (2) We can find the length of the green line OR, because this is the radius of the circle. Given that the length a+b was the diameter, then (a+b) /2 is the radius.

Step (3) We then attempt to find an equation for the length of the purple line PN.

We find MN using Pythagoras: (MN)^{2} = a^{2} +x^{2}

We find NQ using Pythagoras: (NQ)^{2} = b^{2} +x^{2}

Therefore the length MQ can also be found by Pythagoras:

(MQ)^{2} = (MN)^{2 } + (NQ)^{2}

(MQ)^{2 } = a^{2} +x^{2} + b^{2} +x^{2}

But MQ = a + b. Therefore:

(a + b)^{2 } = a^{2} +x^{2} + b^{2} +x^{2}

a^{2}+ b^{2} + 2ab = a^{2} +x^{2} + b^{2} +x^{2}

2ab = x^{2} +x^{2}

ab = x^{2}

x = (ab)^{1/2}

Therefore our green line represents the arithmetic mean of 2 numbers (a+b) /2 and our purple line represents the geometric mean of 2 numbers (ab)^{1/2}. The green line will always be greater than the purple line (except when a = b which gives equality) therefore we have a geometrical proof of our inequality.

There is a more rigorous proof of the general case using induction you may wish to explore as well.

Essential resources for IB students:

Revision Village has been put together to help IB students with topic revision both for during the course and for the end of Year 12 school exams and Year 13 final exams. I would strongly recommend students use this as a resource during the course (not just for final revision in Y13!) There are specific resources for HL and SL students for both Analysis and Applications.

There is a comprehensive Questionbank takes you to a breakdown of each main subject area (e.g. Algebra, Calculus etc) and then provides a large bank of graded questions. What I like about this is that you are given a difficulty rating, as well as a mark scheme and also a worked video tutorial. Really useful!

The Practice Exams section takes you to a large number of ready made quizzes, exams and predicted papers. These all have worked solutions and allow you to focus on specific topics or start general revision. This also has some excellent challenging questions for those students aiming for 6s and 7s.

**Essential Resources for IB Teachers**

If you are a **teacher** then please also visit my new site. This has been designed specifically for teachers of mathematics at international schools. The content now includes over **2000 pages of pdf content** for the entire SL and HL Analysis syllabus and also the SL Applications syllabus. Some of the content includes:

**Original pdf worksheets**(with full worked solutions) designed to cover all the syllabus topics. These make great homework sheets or in class worksheets – and are each designed to last between 40 minutes and 1 hour.**Original Paper 3 investigations**(with full worked solutions) to develop investigative techniques and support both the exploration and the Paper 3 examination.- Over 150 pages of
**Coursework Guides**to introduce students to the essentials behind getting an excellent mark on their exploration coursework. - A large number of
**enrichment activities**such as treasure hunts, quizzes, investigations, Desmos explorations, Python coding and more – to engage IB learners in the course.

There is also a lot more. I think this could save teachers 200+ hours of preparation time in delivering an IB maths course – so it should be well worth exploring!

**Essential Resources for both IB teachers and IB students**

1) Exploration Guides and Paper 3 Resources

I’ve put together a **168 page** Super Exploration Guide to talk students and teachers through all aspects of producing an excellent coursework submission. Students always make the same mistakes when doing their coursework – get the inside track from an IB moderator! I have also made **Paper 3 packs** for HL Analysis and also Applications students to help prepare for their Paper 3 exams. The Exploration Guides can be downloaded here and the Paper 3 Questions can be downloaded here.

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