You are currently browsing the tag archive for the ‘arithmetic mean’ tag.



A geometric proof for the Arithmetic and Geometric Mean

There is more than one way to define the mean of a number.  The arithmetic mean is the mean we learn at secondary school – for 2 numbers a and b it is:

(a + b) /2.

The geometric mean on the other hand is defined as:

(x1.x2.x3…xn)1/n

So for example with the numbers 1,2,3 the geometric mean is (1 x 2 x 3)1/3.

With 2 numbers, a and b, the geometric mean is (ab)1/2.

We can then use the above diagram to prove that (a + b) /2 ≥ (ab)1/2 for all a and b. Indeed this inequality holds more generally and it can be proved that the Arithmetic mean ≥ Geometric mean.

Step (1) We draw a triangle as above, with the line MQ a diameter, and therefore angle MNQ a right angle (from the circle theorems).  Let MP be the length a, and let PQ be the length b.

Step (2) We can find the length of the green line OR, because this is the radius of the circle.  Given that the length a+b was the diameter, then (a+b) /2 is the radius.

Step (3) We then attempt to find an equation for the length of the purple line PN.

We find MN using Pythagoras:  (MN)2 = a2 +x2

We find NQ using Pythagoras:  (NQ)2 = b2 +x2

Therefore the length MQ can also be found by Pythagoras:

(MQ)2 = (MN) + (NQ)2

(MQ) = a2 +x2 + b2 +x2

But MQ = a + b.  Therefore:

(a + b) = a2 +x2 + b2 +x2

a2+ b2 + 2ab = a2 +x2 + b2 +x2

2ab = x2 +x2

ab = x2

x = (ab)1/2

Therefore our green line represents the arithmetic mean of 2 numbers (a+b) /2 and our purple line represents the geometric mean of 2 numbers (ab)1/2. The green line will always be greater than the purple line (except when a = b which gives equality) therefore we have a geometrical proof of our inequality.

There is a more rigorous proof of the general case using induction you may wish to explore as well.

Website Stats

  • 7,712,136 views

IB Maths Exploration Guide

IB Maths Exploration Guide

A comprehensive 63 page pdf guide to help you get excellent marks on your maths investigation. Includes:

  1. Investigation essentials,
  2. Marking criteria guidance,
  3. 70 hand picked interesting topics
  4. Useful websites for use in the exploration,
  5. A student checklist for top marks
  6. Avoiding common student mistakes
  7. A selection of detailed exploration ideas
  8. Advice on using Geogebra, Desmos and Tracker.

Available to download here.

IB Revision Notes

IB Revision Notes

Full revision notes for both SL Analysis (60 pages) and HL Analysis (112 pages).  Beautifully written by an experienced IB Mathematics teacher, and of an exceptionally high quality.  Fully updated for the new syllabus.  A must for all Analysis students!

Available to download here.

IB HL Paper 3 Practice Questions (120 page pdf)

IB HL Paper 3 Practice Questions 

Seventeen full investigation questions – each one designed to last around 1 hour, and totaling around 40 pages and 600 marks worth of content.  There is also a fully typed up mark scheme.  Together this is around 120 pages of content.

Available to download here.

IB Exploration Modelling and Statistics Guide


IB Exploration Modelling and Statistics Guide

A 60 page pdf guide full of advice to help with modelling and statistics explorations – focusing in on non-calculator methods in order to show good understanding. Includes:

  1. Pearson’s Product: Height and arm span
  2. How to calculate standard deviation by hand
  3. Binomial investigation: ESP powers
  4. Paired t tests and 2 sample t tests: Reaction times
  5. Chi Squared: Efficiency of vaccines
  6. Spearman’s rank: Taste preference of cola
  7. Linear regression and log linearization.
  8. Quadratic regression and cubic regression.
  9. Exponential and trigonometric regression.

Available to download here.

Recent Posts

Follow IB Maths Resources from British International School Phuket on WordPress.com