Bullet Projectile Motion Experiment

This is a classic physics experiment which counter to our intuition.  We have  a situation where 1 ball is dropped from a point, and another ball is thrown horizontally from that same point.  The question is which ball will hit the ground first?

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(diagram from School for Champions site)

Looking at the diagram above you might argue that the ball that is dropped falls to the floor quicker as it has a shorter path.  Or, you might think that the ball thrown sideways would travel faster to the ground because of its initial horizontal velocity.  Both of these views are wrong however – as both balls will land at exactly the same time.  To understand why, let’s look at the 2 situations in turn.

The ball launched sideways

To show that both balls would hit the ground at the same time we need to split the motion into its x and y components.  We have

x = v t \cos \theta
y = vt \sin \theta - \frac{1}{2} g t^2

Where the angle theta is the angle of launch, v is the initial velocity, g is the gravitational constant 9.8 m/s.  If we have a launch from the horizontal direction, then this angle is 0, which gives the simplified equations:

x = vt

y = 0.5gt2

if we relabel y as the vertical distance (d), then we have:

\ t =\ \sqrt {\frac{2d}{g}}

which is the time taken (ignoring air resistance etc) for an object launched horizontally to fall a distance d, where g is the gravitational constant 9.8 m/s.

So if we have a ball launched at a speed of 1 m/s from a height of 1m, it would hit the ground when:

t = (2/9.8)0.5 = 0.45 seconds

So we can use this value of t to see how far in the x direction it has travelled:

x = vt

x = 1(0.45)

x = 0.45m.

The ball dropped vertically

We still start with:

x = v t \cos \theta
y = vt \sin \theta - \frac{1}{2} g t^2

But this time we have no initial velocity as so we simply get:

x = 0

y = 0.5gt2

or as before, if we relabel y as the vertical distance (d), then we have:

\ t =\ \sqrt {\frac{2d}{g}}

So with a ball dropped from a height of 1m, it would also hit the ground when:

t = (2/9.8)0.5 = 0.45 seconds

But this time the distance in the x direction will of course be 0.

Showing this graphically 

We can also show this graphically using the tracker software.  This allows you to track the motion of objects in videos.  So using the video above we can set the axis, and the height of the table

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and then the motion capture software actually plots the parabola of the ball’s motion.

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This first graph shows the change in the y direction with respect to time for the ball launched horizontally.  We have large steps because the video was in super slow motion, so there were frames of very little movement.  Nevertheless we can clearly see the general parabola, with equation:

y = -0.43x2 -1.2x + 107

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The second graph shows the change in y direction with respect to time for the ball dropped vertically down.  As before we have a clear parabola, with equation:

y = -0.43x2 -1.2x + 106

Which is a remarkably close fit.  So, there we go, we have shown that the vertical motion of our 2 objects are independent of their horizontal motion.

Essential resources for IB students:

1) Revision Village

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Revision Village has been put together to help IB students with topic revision both for during the course and for the end of Year 12 school exams and Year 13 final exams.  I would strongly recommend students use this as a resource during the course (not just for final revision in Y13!) There are specific resources for HL and SL students for both Analysis and Applications.

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There is a comprehensive Questionbank takes you to a breakdown of each main subject area (e.g. Algebra, Calculus etc) and then provides a large bank of graded questions.  What I like about this is that you are given a difficulty rating, as well as a mark scheme and also a worked video tutorial.  Really useful!

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The Practice Exams section takes you to a large number of ready made quizzes, exams and predicted papers.   These all have worked solutions and allow you to focus on specific topics or start general revision.  This also has some excellent challenging questions for those students aiming for 6s and 7s.

Each course also has a dedicated video tutorial section which provides 5-15 minute tutorial videos on every single syllabus part – handily sorted into topic categories.

2) Exploration Guides and Paper 3 Resources

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I’ve put together four comprehensive pdf guides to help students prepare for their exploration coursework and Paper 3 investigations. The exploration guides talk through the marking criteria, common student mistakes, excellent ideas for explorations, technology advice, modeling methods and a variety of statistical techniques with detailed explanations. I’ve also made 17 full investigation questions which are also excellent starting points for explorations.  The Exploration Guides can be downloaded here and the Paper 3 Questions can be downloaded here.