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Utility Value – How Maths Can Make You Happier

The use of utility curves to make optimal decisions is something which is never really touched on in mathematics – even though they are a powerful tool for making good choices in life.   “Utility” is used to represent personal benefit – and in this graph, maximum utility value has been set as 1.

For these types of concave utility graphs you have a rapid increase in utility value initially (as spending £2000 on a car brings a large increase in utility value than not having a car), but then it quite quickly levels off (as there is little added utility value in spending £22,000 rather than £20,000).

Obviously everyone’s personal utility curve will be different – perhaps someone who spends several hours every day in their car will really value that extra comfort and luxury that spending a few thousand pounds brings – and so their own curve will flatten out more slowly.  Nevertheless they will always demonstrate the law of diminishing returns – where we ultimately end up spending more and more for ever reduced benefits.

The graph above is generated by the function f(x) = 1 + 2/(x+2).  By adding a slider on Geogebra in the form f(x) = 1 + a/(x+a) you can amend the utility curve to have different levels of steepness – so students can easily generate their own utility curves.

The Khan Academy video on Marginal Utility is a really nice example of how we can use these calculations to optimise our happiness.  In the video they discuss how best to spend \$5 when faced with the choice of either fruit or chocolate.

Staying with cars, another factor to take into account is depreciation:

This graph is taken from What Car  which allows you to enter any make and model of a car and see how its cost depreciates with time.  In this particular case (with a Ford Focus), the price depreciates from £17,405 to £9,829 in just 12 months – that’s a stunning 44% decrease in value in one year.  Or to think of it another way, you’ve lost £630 every single month.

So it is clear that buying a new car will lead to a massive yearly loss in your investment.  The only strategies that make sense therefore are either buying a new car (with the peace of mind of long term warranties) and driving it for the next decade (thus averaging out the initial large loss in value), or buying a car that is already a year old – and avoiding the sharp depreciation completely.  The absolute worst thing you can do is buy a new car and after 3-4 years sell it to buy another one – this really is just throwing money away!

So, understanding some simple mathematical concepts can help us make better decisions when it comes to investments and how we spend our money – and by helping to maximise our utility also has the potential to make us happier individuals.

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Benford’s Law – Catching Fraudsters – how mathematics can help solve crimes

Game Theory and Evolution – how understanding mathematics helps us understand human behaviour

IB Revision

If you’re already thinking about your coursework then it’s probably also time to start planning some revision, either for the end of Year 12 school exams or Year 13 final exams. There’s a really great website that I would strongly recommend students use – you choose your subject (HL/SL/Studies if your exam is in 2020 or Applications/Analysis if your exam is in 2021), and then have the following resources:

The Questionbank takes you to a breakdown of each main subject area (e.g. Algebra, Calculus etc) and each area then has a number of graded questions. What I like about this is that you are given a difficulty rating, as well as a mark scheme and also a worked video tutorial.  Really useful!

The Practice Exams section takes you to ready made exams on each topic – again with worked solutions.  This also has some harder exams for those students aiming for 6s and 7s and the Past IB Exams section takes you to full video worked solutions to every question on every past paper – and you can also get a prediction exam for the upcoming year.

I would really recommend everyone making use of this – there is a mixture of a lot of free content as well as premium content so have a look and see what you think.

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IB HL Paper 3 Practice Questions (120 page pdf)

IB HL Paper 3 Practice Questions

Seventeen full investigation questions – each one designed to last around 1 hour, and totaling around 40 pages and 600 marks worth of content.  There is also a fully typed up mark scheme.  Together this is around 120 pages of content.

IB Maths Exploration Guide

IB Maths Exploration Guide

A comprehensive 63 page pdf guide to help you get excellent marks on your maths investigation. Includes:

1. Investigation essentials,
2. Marking criteria guidance,
3. 70 hand picked interesting topics
4. Useful websites for use in the exploration,
5. A student checklist for top marks
6. Avoiding common student mistakes
7. A selection of detailed exploration ideas
8. Advice on using Geogebra, Desmos and Tracker.

Modelling Guide

IB Exploration Modelling Guide

A 50 page pdf guide full of advice to help with modelling explorations – focusing in on non-calculator methods in order to show good understanding.

Modelling Guide includes:

Linear regression and log linearization, quadratic regression and cubic regression, exponential and trigonometric regression, comprehensive technology guide for using Desmos and Tracker.

Statistics Guide

IB Exploration Statistics Guide

A 55 page pdf guide full of advice to help with modelling explorations – focusing in on non-calculator methods in order to show good understanding.

Statistics Guide includes: Pearson’s Product investigation, Chi Squared investigation, Binomial distribution investigation, t-test investigation, sampling techniques, normal distribution investigation and how to effectively use Desmos to represent data.