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grahams number

Graham’s Number – literally big enough to collapse your head into a black hole

Graham’s Number is a number so big that it would literally collapse your head into a black hole were you fully able to comprehend it. And that’s not hyperbole – the informational content of Graham’s Number is so astronomically large that it exceeds the maximum amount of entropy that could be stored in a brain sized piece of space – i.e. a black hole would form prior to fully processing all the data content. This is a great introduction to notation for really big numbers. Numberphile have produced a fantastic video on the topic:

Graham’s Number makes use of Kuth’s up arrow notation (explanation from wikipedia:)

In the series of hyper-operations we have

1) Multiplication:

   \begin{matrix}    a\times b & = & \underbrace{a+a+\dots+a} \\    & & b\mbox{ copies of }a   \end{matrix}

For example,

   \begin{matrix}   4\times 3 & = & \underbrace{4+4+4} & = & 12\\    & & 3\mbox{ copies of }4   \end{matrix}

2) Exponentiation:

   \begin{matrix}    a\uparrow b= a^b = & \underbrace{a\times a\times\dots\times a}\\    & b\mbox{ copies of }a   \end{matrix}

For example,

   \begin{matrix}    4\uparrow 3= 4^3 = & \underbrace{4\times 4\times 4} & = & 64\\    & 3\mbox{ copies of }4   \end{matrix}

3) Tetration:

   \begin{matrix}    a\uparrow\uparrow b & = {\ ^{b}a}  = & \underbrace{a^{a^{{}^{.\,^{.\,^{.\,^a}}}}}} &     = & \underbrace{a\uparrow (a\uparrow(\dots\uparrow a))}  \\       & & b\mbox{ copies of }a     & & b\mbox{ copies of }a   \end{matrix}

For example,

   \begin{matrix}    4\uparrow\uparrow 3 & = {\ ^{3}4}  = & \underbrace{4^{4^4}} &     = & \underbrace{4\uparrow (4\uparrow 4)} & = & 4^{256} & \approx & 1.34078079\times 10^{154}& \\       & & 3\mbox{ copies of }4     & & 3\mbox{ copies of }4   \end{matrix}
3\uparrow\uparrow 2=3^3=27
3\uparrow\uparrow 3=3^{3^3}=3^{27}=7625597484987
3\uparrow\uparrow 4=3^{3^{3^3}}=3^{3^{27}}=3^{7625597484987}
3\uparrow\uparrow 5=3^{3^{3^{3^3}}}=3^{3^{3^{27}}}=3^{3^{7625597484987}}
etc.

4) Pentation:

   \begin{matrix}    a\uparrow\uparrow\uparrow b= &     \underbrace{a_{}\uparrow\uparrow (a\uparrow\uparrow(\dots\uparrow\uparrow a))}\\     & b\mbox{ copies of }a   \end{matrix}

and so on.

Examples:

3\uparrow\uparrow\uparrow2 = 3\uparrow\uparrow3 = 3^{3^3} = 3^{27}=7,625,597,484,987
   \begin{matrix}     3\uparrow\uparrow\uparrow3 = 3\uparrow\uparrow3\uparrow\uparrow3 = 3\uparrow\uparrow(3\uparrow3\uparrow3) = &     \underbrace{3_{}\uparrow 3\uparrow\dots\uparrow 3} \\    & 3\uparrow3\uparrow3\mbox{ copies of }3   \end{matrix}   \begin{matrix}    = & \underbrace{3_{}\uparrow 3\uparrow\dots\uparrow 3} \\    & \mbox{7,625,597,484,987 copies of 3}   \end{matrix}=\underbrace{3^{3^{3^{3^{\cdot^{\cdot^{\cdot^{\cdot^{3}}}}}}}}}_{7,625,597,484,987}

Which clearly can lead to some absolutely huge numbers very quickly. Graham’s Number – which was arrived at mathematically as an upper bound for a problem relating to vertices on hypercubes is (explanation from Wikipedia)

grahams number

where the number of arrows in each layer, starting at the top layer, is specified by the value of the next layer below it; that is,

G = g_{64},\text{ where }g_1=3\uparrow\uparrow\uparrow\uparrow 3,\  g_n = 3\uparrow^{g_{n-1}}3,

and where a superscript on an up-arrow indicates how many arrows are there. In other words, G is calculated in 64 steps: the first step is to calculate g1 with four up-arrows between 3s; the second step is to calculate g2 with g1 up-arrows between 3s; the third step is to calculate g3 with g2 up-arrows between 3s; and so on, until finally calculating G = g64 with g63 up-arrows between 3s.

So a number so big it can’t be fully processed by the human brain.  This raises some interesting questions about maths and knowledge – Graham’s Number is an example of a number that exists but is beyond full human comprehension – it therefore is an example of a upper bound of human knowledge.  Therefore will there always be things in the Universe which are beyond full human understanding?  Or can mathematics provide a shortcut to knowledge that would otherwise be inaccessible?

If you enjoyed this post you might also like:

How Are Prime Numbers Distributed? Twin Primes Conjecture – a discussion about the amazing world of prime numbers.

Wau: The Most Amazing Number in the World? – a post which looks at the amazing properties of Wau

grahams number

Graham’s Number – literally big enough to collapse your head into a black hole

Graham’s Number is a number so big that it would literally collapse your head into a black hole were you fully able to comprehend it. And that’s not hyperbole – the informational content of Graham’s Number is so astronomically large that it exceeds the maximum amount of entropy that could be stored in a brain sized piece of space – i.e. a black hole would form prior to fully processing all the data content. This is a great introduction to notation for really big numbers. Numberphile have produced a fantastic video on the topic:

Graham’s Number makes use of Kuth’s up arrow notation (explanation from wikipedia:)

In the series of hyper-operations we have

1) Multiplication:

   \begin{matrix}    a\times b & = & \underbrace{a+a+\dots+a} \\    & & b\mbox{ copies of }a   \end{matrix}

For example,

   \begin{matrix}   4\times 3 & = & \underbrace{4+4+4} & = & 12\\    & & 3\mbox{ copies of }4   \end{matrix}

2) Exponentiation:

   \begin{matrix}    a\uparrow b= a^b = & \underbrace{a\times a\times\dots\times a}\\    & b\mbox{ copies of }a   \end{matrix}

For example,

   \begin{matrix}    4\uparrow 3= 4^3 = & \underbrace{4\times 4\times 4} & = & 64\\    & 3\mbox{ copies of }4   \end{matrix}

3) Tetration:

   \begin{matrix}    a\uparrow\uparrow b & = {\ ^{b}a}  = & \underbrace{a^{a^{{}^{.\,^{.\,^{.\,^a}}}}}} &     = & \underbrace{a\uparrow (a\uparrow(\dots\uparrow a))}  \\       & & b\mbox{ copies of }a     & & b\mbox{ copies of }a   \end{matrix}

For example,

   \begin{matrix}    4\uparrow\uparrow 3 & = {\ ^{3}4}  = & \underbrace{4^{4^4}} &     = & \underbrace{4\uparrow (4\uparrow 4)} & = & 4^{256} & \approx & 1.34078079\times 10^{154}& \\       & & 3\mbox{ copies of }4     & & 3\mbox{ copies of }4   \end{matrix}
3\uparrow\uparrow 2=3^3=27
3\uparrow\uparrow 3=3^{3^3}=3^{27}=7625597484987
3\uparrow\uparrow 4=3^{3^{3^3}}=3^{3^{27}}=3^{7625597484987}
3\uparrow\uparrow 5=3^{3^{3^{3^3}}}=3^{3^{3^{27}}}=3^{3^{7625597484987}}
etc.

4) Pentation:

   \begin{matrix}    a\uparrow\uparrow\uparrow b= &     \underbrace{a_{}\uparrow\uparrow (a\uparrow\uparrow(\dots\uparrow\uparrow a))}\\     & b\mbox{ copies of }a   \end{matrix}

and so on.

Examples:

3\uparrow\uparrow\uparrow2 = 3\uparrow\uparrow3 = 3^{3^3} = 3^{27}=7,625,597,484,987
   \begin{matrix}     3\uparrow\uparrow\uparrow3 = 3\uparrow\uparrow3\uparrow\uparrow3 = 3\uparrow\uparrow(3\uparrow3\uparrow3) = &     \underbrace{3_{}\uparrow 3\uparrow\dots\uparrow 3} \\    & 3\uparrow3\uparrow3\mbox{ copies of }3   \end{matrix}   \begin{matrix}    = & \underbrace{3_{}\uparrow 3\uparrow\dots\uparrow 3} \\    & \mbox{7,625,597,484,987 copies of 3}   \end{matrix}=\underbrace{3^{3^{3^{3^{\cdot^{\cdot^{\cdot^{\cdot^{3}}}}}}}}}_{7,625,597,484,987}

Which clearly can lead to some absolutely huge numbers very quickly. Graham’s Number – which was arrived at mathematically as an upper bound for a problem relating to vertices on hypercubes is (explanation from Wikipedia)

grahams number

where the number of arrows in each layer, starting at the top layer, is specified by the value of the next layer below it; that is,

G = g_{64},\text{ where }g_1=3\uparrow\uparrow\uparrow\uparrow 3,\  g_n = 3\uparrow^{g_{n-1}}3,

and where a superscript on an up-arrow indicates how many arrows are there. In other words, G is calculated in 64 steps: the first step is to calculate g1 with four up-arrows between 3s; the second step is to calculate g2 with g1 up-arrows between 3s; the third step is to calculate g3 with g2 up-arrows between 3s; and so on, until finally calculating G = g64 with g63 up-arrows between 3s.

So a number so big it can’t be fully processed by the human brain.  This raises some interesting questions about maths and knowledge – Graham’s Number is an example of a number that exists but is beyond full human comprehension – it therefore is an example of a upper bound of human knowledge.  Therefore will there always be things in the Universe which are beyond full human understanding?  Or can mathematics provide a shortcut to knowledge that would otherwise be inaccessible?

If you enjoyed this post you might also like:

How Are Prime Numbers Distributed? Twin Primes Conjecture – a discussion about the amazing world of prime numbers.

Wau: The Most Amazing Number in the World? – a post which looks at the amazing properties of Wau

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IB Revision

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If you’re already thinking about your coursework then it’s probably also time to start planning some revision, either for the end of Year 12 school exams or Year 13 final exams. There’s a really great website that I would strongly recommend students use – you choose your subject (HL/SL/Studies if your exam is in 2020 or Applications/Analysis if your exam is in 2021), and then have the following resources:

Screen Shot 2018-03-19 at 4.42.05 PM.pngThe Questionbank takes you to a breakdown of each main subject area (e.g. Algebra, Calculus etc) and each area then has a number of graded questions. What I like about this is that you are given a difficulty rating, as well as a mark scheme and also a worked video tutorial.  Really useful!

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The Practice Exams section takes you to ready made exams on each topic – again with worked solutions.  This also has some harder exams for those students aiming for 6s and 7s and the Past IB Exams section takes you to full video worked solutions to every question on every past paper – and you can also get a prediction exam for the upcoming year.

I would really recommend everyone making use of this – there is a mixture of a lot of free content as well as premium content so have a look and see what you think.

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IB HL Paper 3 Practice Questions (120 page pdf)

IB HL Paper 3 Practice Questions 

Seventeen full investigation questions – each one designed to last around 1 hour, and totaling around 40 pages and 600 marks worth of content.  There is also a fully typed up mark scheme.  Together this is around 120 pages of content.

Available to download here.

IB Maths Exploration Guide

IB Maths Exploration Guide

A comprehensive 63 page pdf guide to help you get excellent marks on your maths investigation. Includes:

  1. Investigation essentials,
  2. Marking criteria guidance,
  3. 70 hand picked interesting topics
  4. Useful websites for use in the exploration,
  5. A student checklist for top marks
  6. Avoiding common student mistakes
  7. A selection of detailed exploration ideas
  8. Advice on using Geogebra, Desmos and Tracker.

Available to download here.

Modelling Guide


IB Exploration Modelling Guide 

A 50 page pdf guide full of advice to help with modelling explorations – focusing in on non-calculator methods in order to show good understanding.

Modelling Guide includes:

Linear regression and log linearization, quadratic regression and cubic regression, exponential and trigonometric regression, comprehensive technology guide for using Desmos and Tracker.

Available to download here.

Statistics Guide

IB Exploration Statistics Guide

A 55 page pdf guide full of advice to help with modelling explorations – focusing in on non-calculator methods in order to show good understanding.

Statistics Guide includes: Pearson’s Product investigation, Chi Squared investigation, Binomial distribution investigation, t-test investigation, sampling techniques, normal distribution investigation and how to effectively use Desmos to represent data.

Available to download here.

IB Revision Notes

IB Revision Notes

Full revision notes for SL Analysis (60 pages), HL Analysis (112 pages) and SL Applications (53 pages).  Beautifully written by an experienced IB Mathematics teacher, and of an exceptionally high quality.  Fully updated for the new syllabus.  A must for all Analysis and Applications students!

Available to download here.

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