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Classical Geometry Puzzle: Finding the Radius

This is another look at a puzzle from Mind Your Decisions.  The problem is to find the radius of the following circle:

We are told that line AD and BC are perpendicular and the lengths of some parts of chords, but not much more!  First I’ll look at my attempt to solve this.  It’s not quite as “nice” as the solution in the video as it requires the use of a calculator, but it still does the job.

Method 1, extra construction lines:

These are the extra construction lines required to solve this problem.  Here is the step by step thought process:

  1. Find the hypotenuse of triangle AGC.
  2. Use the circle theorem angles in the same segment are equal to show that angle CBD = angle CAG.
  3. Therefore triangle AGC and GBD are similar, so length BG = 4.  We can now use Pythagoras to find length BD.
  4. We can find length CD by Pythagoras.
  5. Now we have 3 sides of a triangle, CDB.  This allows use to find angle BDC using the cosine rule.
  6. Now we the circle theorem angles in the same segment are equal to show that angle BDC = angle BEC.
  7. Now we use the circle theorem angles in a semi circle are 90 degrees to show ECB = 90.
  8. Now we have a right angled triangle BCE where we know both an angle and a side, so can use trigonometry to find the length of BE.
  9. Therefore the radius is approximately 4.03.

Method 2, creating a coordinate system

This is a really beautiful solution – which does not require a calculator (and which is discussed in the video above).  We start by creating a coordinate system based around point G at (0,0).  Because we have perpendicular lines we can therefore create coordinates for A, B and C.  We also mark the centre of the circle as (p,q).

First we start with the equation of a circle centre (p.q):

Next we create 3 equations by substituting in our coordinates:

Next we can do equation (3) – equation (1) to give:

Next we can substitute this value for p into equations (1) and (3) and equate to get:

Lastly we can substitute both values for p and q into equation (1) to find r:

We get the same answer as before – though this definitely feels like a “cleaner” solution.  There are other ways to solve this – but some of these require the use of equations you may not already know (such as the law of sines in a circumcircle, or the equation for perpendicular chords and radius).  Perhaps explore any other methods for solving this – what are the relative merits of each approach?

Essential resources for IB students:

1) Revision Village

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Revision Village has been put together to help IB students with topic revision both for during the course and for the end of Year 12 school exams and Year 13 final exams.  I would strongly recommend students use this as a resource during the course (not just for final revision in Y13!) There are specific resources for HL and SL students for both Analysis and Applications.

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There is a comprehensive Questionbank takes you to a breakdown of each main subject area (e.g. Algebra, Calculus etc) and then provides a large bank of graded questions.  What I like about this is that you are given a difficulty rating, as well as a mark scheme and also a worked video tutorial.  Really useful!

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The Practice Exams section takes you to a large number of ready made quizzes, exams and predicted papers.   These all have worked solutions and allow you to focus on specific topics or start general revision.  This also has some excellent challenging questions for those students aiming for 6s and 7s.

Each course also has a dedicated video tutorial section which provides 5-15 minute tutorial videos on every single syllabus part – handily sorted into topic categories.

2) Exploration Guides and Paper 3 Resources

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I’ve put together four comprehensive pdf guides to help students prepare for their exploration coursework and Paper 3 investigations. The exploration guides talk through the marking criteria, common student mistakes, excellent ideas for explorations, technology advice, modeling methods and a variety of statistical techniques with detailed explanations. I’ve also made 17 full investigation questions which are also excellent starting points for explorations.  The Exploration Guides can be downloaded here and the Paper 3 Questions can be downloaded here.

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All content on this site has been written by Andrew Chambers (MSc. Mathematics, IB Mathematics Examiner).

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IB Maths Exploration Guide

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IB HL Paper 3 Practice Questions (120 page pdf)

Eight P3 investigation questions and fully typed mark scheme (around 240 marks)

Available to download here

Modelling Guide for Explorations

A 50 page pdf guide full of advice to help with modelling explorations – focusing in on non-calculator methods in order to show good understanding.

Available to download here.

Statistics Guide

A 55 page pdf guide full of advice to help with modelling explorations – focusing in on non-calculator methods in order to show good understanding.

Available to download here.

IB Revision Notes

Full revision notes for SL Analysis (60 pages), HL Analysis (112 pages) and SL Applications (53 pages).  Beautifully written by an experienced IB Mathematics teacher.

Available to download here.

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