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**Tetrahedral Numbers – Stacking Cannonballs**

This is one of those deceptively simple topics which actually contains a lot of mathematics – and it involves how spheres can be stacked, and how they can be stacked most efficiently. Starting off with the basics we can explore the sequence:

1, 4, 10, 20, 35, 56….

These are the total number of cannons in a stack as the stack gets higher. From the diagram we can see that this sequence is in fact a sum of the triangular numbers:

S_{1} = 1

S_{2} 1+3

S_{3} 1+3+6

S_{4} 1+3+6+10

So we can sum the first n triangular numbers to get the general term of the tetrahedral numbers. Now, the general term of the triangular numbers is 0.5n^{2} + 0.5n therefore we can think of tetrahedral numbers as the summation:

But we have known results for the 2 summations on the right hand side:

and

and when we add these two together (with a bit of algebraic manipulation!) we get:

This is the general formula for the total number of cannonballs in a stack n rows high. We can notice that this is also the same as the binomial coefficient:

Therefore we also can find the tetrahedral numbers in Pascals’ triangle (4th diagonal column above).

The classic maths puzzle (called the cannonball problem), which asks which tetrahedral number is also a square number was proved in 1878. It turns out there are only 3 possible answers. The first square number (1) is also a tetrahedral number, as is the second square number (4), as is the 140th square number (19,600).

We can also look at something called the *generating function* of the sequence. This is a polynomial whose coefficients give the sequence terms. In this case the generating function is:

Having looked at some of the basic ideas behind the maths of stacking spheres we can look at a much more complicated mathematical problem. This is called Kepler’s Conjecture – and was posed 400 years ago. Kepler was a 17th century mathematician who in 1611 conjectured that there was no way to pack spheres to make better use of the given space than the stack above. The spheres pictured above fill about 74% of the given space. This was thought to be intuitively true – but unproven. It was chosen by Hilbert in the 18th century as one of his famous 23 unsolved problems. Despite much mathematical efforts it was only finally proved in 1998.

If you like this post you might also like:

The Poincare Conjecture – the search for a solution to one of mathematics greatest problems.

**IB Revision**

If you’re already thinking about your coursework then it’s probably also time to start planning some revision, either for the end of Year 12 school exams or Year 13 final exams. There’s a really great website that I would strongly recommend students use – you choose your subject (HL/SL/Studies if your exam is in 2020 or Applications/Analysis if your exam is in 2021), and then have the following resources:

The Questionbank takes you to a breakdown of each main subject area (e.g. Algebra, Calculus etc) and each area then has a number of graded questions. What I like about this is that you are given a difficulty rating, as well as a mark scheme and also a worked video tutorial. Really useful!

The Practice Exams section takes you to ready made exams on each topic – again with worked solutions. This also has some harder exams for those students aiming for 6s and 7s and the Past IB Exams section takes you to full video worked solutions to every question on every past paper – and you can also get a prediction exam for the upcoming year.

I would really recommend everyone making use of this – there is a mixture of a lot of free content as well as premium content so have a look and see what you think.