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Projectile Motion Investigation II

If you are a teacher then please also visit my new site: intermathematics.com for over 2000+ pdf pages of resources for teaching IB maths!

Another example for investigating projectile motion has been provided by fellow IB teacher Ferenc Beleznay.  Here we fix the velocity and then vary the angle, then to plot the maximum points of the parabolas.  He has created a Geogebra app to show this (shown above).  The locus of these maximum points then form an ellipse.

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We can see that the maximum points of the projectiles all go through the dotted elliptical line.  So let’s see if we can derive this equation.

Let’s start with the equations for projectile motion, usually given in parametric form:

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Here v is the initial velocity which we will keep constant, theta is the angle of launch which we will vary, and g is the gravitational constant which we will take as 9.81.

We can plot these curves parametrically, and for each given value of theta (the angle of launch) we will create a projectile motion graph.  If we plot lots of these graphs for different thetas together we get something like this:

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We now want to see if the maximum points are in any sort of pattern.  In order to find the maximum point we want to find when the gradient of dy/dx is 0.  It’s going to be easier to keep things in parametric form, and use partial differentiation.  We have:

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Therefore we find the partial differentiation of both x and y with respect to t.  (This simply means we can pretend theta is a constant).

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We can then say that:

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We then find when this has a gradient of 0:

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We can then substitute this value of t back into the original parametric equations for x:

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and also for y:

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We now have the parametric equations in terms of theta for the locus of points of the maximum points.  For example, with g= 9.81 and v =1 we have the following parametric equations:

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This generates an ellipse (dotted line), which shows the maximum points generated by the parametric equations below (as we vary theta):

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And here is the graph:

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We can vary the velocity to create a new ellipse.  For example the ellipse generated when v =4 creates the following graph:

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So, there we go, we have shown that different ellipses will be created by different velocities.  If you feel like a challenge, see if you can algebraically manipulate the parametric equations for the ellipse into the Cartesian form!

Essential resources for IB students:

1) Revision Village

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Revision Village has been put together to help IB students with topic revision both for during the course and for the end of Year 12 school exams and Year 13 final exams.  I would strongly recommend students use this as a resource during the course (not just for final revision in Y13!) There are specific resources for HL and SL students for both Analysis and Applications.

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There is a comprehensive Questionbank takes you to a breakdown of each main subject area (e.g. Algebra, Calculus etc) and then provides a large bank of graded questions.  What I like about this is that you are given a difficulty rating, as well as a mark scheme and also a worked video tutorial.  Really useful!

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The Practice Exams section takes you to a large number of ready made quizzes, exams and predicted papers.   These all have worked solutions and allow you to focus on specific topics or start general revision.  This also has some excellent challenging questions for those students aiming for 6s and 7s.

Essential Resources for IB Teachers

1) Intermathematics.com

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If you are a teacher then please also visit my new site.  This has been designed specifically for teachers of mathematics at international schools.  The content now includes over 2000 pages of pdf content for the entire SL and HL Analysis syllabus and also the SL Applications syllabus.  Some of the content includes:

  1. Original pdf worksheets (with full worked solutions) designed to cover all the syllabus topics.  These make great homework sheets or in class worksheets – and are each designed to last between 40 minutes and 1 hour.
  2. Original Paper 3 investigations (with full worked solutions) to develop investigative techniques and support both the exploration and the Paper 3 examination.
  3. Over 150 pages of Coursework Guides to introduce students to the essentials behind getting an excellent mark on their exploration coursework.
  4. A large number of enrichment activities such as treasure hunts, quizzes, investigations, Desmos explorations, Python coding and more – to engage IB learners in the course.

There is also a lot more.  I think this could save teachers 200+ hours of preparation time in delivering an IB maths course – so it should be well worth exploring!

Essential Resources for both IB teachers and IB students

1) Exploration Guides and Paper 3 Resources

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I’ve put together a 168 page Super Exploration Guide to talk students and teachers through all aspects of producing an excellent coursework submission.  Students always make the same mistakes when doing their coursework – get the inside track from an IB moderator!  I have also made Paper 3 packs for HL Analysis and also Applications students to help prepare for their Paper 3 exams.  The Exploration Guides can be downloaded here and the Paper 3 Questions can be downloaded here.

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All content on this site has been written by Andrew Chambers (MSc. Mathematics, IB Mathematics Examiner).

New website for International teachers

I’ve just launched a brand new maths site for international schools – over 2000 pdf pages of resources to support IB teachers.  If you are an IB teacher this could save you 200+ hours of preparation time.

Explore here!

Free HL Paper 3 Questions

P3 investigation questions and fully typed mark scheme.  Packs for both Applications students and Analysis students.

Available to download here

IB Maths Super Exploration Guide

A Super Exploration Guide with 168 pages of essential advice from a current IB examiner to ensure you get great marks on your coursework.

Available to download here.

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