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**What’s so special about 277777788888899?**

Numberphile have just done a nice video which combines mathematics and computer programing. The challenge is to choose any number (say 347)

Then we do 3x4x7 = 84

next we do 8×4 = 32

next we do 3×2 = 6.

And when we get to a single digit number then we have finished. It took 3 steps to get from 347 to a single digit number, therefore 347 has a *persistence* of 3. The challenge is to find a number with as big a persistence as possible. The current world record is 277777788888899 which is the smallest number with a persistence of 11. No numbers with a persistence of greater than 11 have ever been found. In the video Matt writes a Python program to check this, though I tried to make my own version below. It’s not very sophisticated, but it gets the job done (with a small glitch of returning a 0 followed by 1s when it should just return 0s!)

The full code should be available to run here, or download here. If you run the program above in an online Python site like repl.it you can choose any number you like as see what its persistence is.

If you find any number that hasn’t gone to a single digit after 11 rounds, you’ve found a new world record persistence!

To very briefly explain the code used above:

We start by defining “result” as 1. We then have some add any integer number on the screen (let’s use 347). We then do 347 mod 10 (number % 10) which gives 7, and do result (which is 1) multiplied by 7. We then do 347 divided by 10 ignoring remainders (number//10). This gives 34.

We then start the process again. 34 mod 10 = 4. So now we have 1 x 7 x 4. Next we do 34 divided by 10 ignoring remainders which gives 3. Last we do 3 mod 10 = 3. So we have 1 x 7 x 4 x 3. If we carried on the loop we would next have 3/10 = 0 ignoring remainders, therefore our loop would stop.

The program then defines the *new* starting number as 7x4x3 = 84 and then starts again. So, a nice use of mathematics and computing – see what levels of persistence you can find!

**Project Euler: Coding to Solve Maths Problems**

Project Euler, named after one of the greatest mathematicians of all time, has been designed to bring together the twin disciplines of mathematics and coding. Computers are now become ever more integral in the field of mathematics – and now creative coding can be a method of solving mathematics problems just as much as creative mathematics has always been.

The first problem on the Project Euler Page is as follows:

*If we list all the natural numbers below 10 that are multiples of 3 or 5, we get 3, 5, 6 and 9. The sum of these multiples is 23.*

*Find the sum of all the multiples of 3 or 5 below 1000.*

This is a reasonably straight forward maths problem which we can solve using the summation of arithmetic sequences (I’ll solve it below!) but more interestingly is how a computer code can be written to solve this same problem. Given that I am something of a coding novice, I went to the Project Nayuki website which has an archive of solutions. Here is a slightly modified version of the solution given on Project Nayki, designed to run in JAVA:

The original file can be copied from here, I then pasted this into an online JAVA site jdoodle. The only modification necessary was to replace:

*public final class p001 implements EulerSolution* with *public class p001*

Then after hitting execute you get the following result:

i.e the solution is returned as 233,168. Amazing!

But before we get carried away, let’s check the answer using some more old fashioned maths. We can break down the question into simply trying to find the sum of multiples of 3 under 1000, the sum of the multiples of 5 under 1000 and then subtracting the multiples of 15 under 1000 (as these will have been double counted). i.e:

(3 + 6 + 9 + … 999) + (5 + 10 + 15 + … 995) – (15 + 30 + 45 + …990)

This gives:

S_333 = 333/2 (2(3)+ 332(3)) = 166,833

+

S_199 = 199/2 (2(5) + 198(5)) = 99, 500

–

S_66 = 66/2 (2(15) +65(15) = 33, 165.

166,833 + 99, 500 – 33, 165 = 233, 168 as required.

Now that we have seen that this works we can modify the original code. For example if we replace:

if (i % 3 == 0 || i % 3 == 0)

with

if (i % 5 == 0 || i % 7 == 0)

This will find the sum of all the multiples of 5 or 7 below 1000. Which returns the answer 156,361.

Replacing the same line with:

if (i % 5 == 0 || i % 7 == 0 || i % 3 == 0)

will find the sum of all the multiples of 3 or 5 or 7 below 1000, which returns the answer 271,066. To find this using the previous method we would have to do:

Sum of 3s + Sum of 5s – Sum of 15s + Sum of 7s – Sum of 21s – Sum 35s – Sum of 105s. Which starts to show why using a computer makes life easier.

This would be a nice addition to any investigation on Number Theory – or indeed a good project for anyone interested in Computer Science as a possible future career.