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Weaving a Spider Web

I often see some beautiful spider webs near my house, similar to the one pictured above (picture from here).  They clearly have some sort of mathematical structure, so I decided to have a quick go at creating my own.

Looking at the picture above there are 2 main parts, an inner spiral, then a structure of hanging threads from lines which radiate from the centre.

Firstly I will use the general parametric equation of a hypocycloid:

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and take the special case when a = 10 and b = 9:

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This gives the following graph:

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I can then vary the value of n in the following equations:

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Which generates the following:

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Next, I can generate the spiral in the centre by using an Archimedean spiral, plotting the curve in polar form as:

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Which now gives:

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Lastly, I want to have straight lines radiating from the centre going through the vertices of the graphs.  I can notice that at these vertices the gradient will be undefined (as we can’t define the gradient at a sharp point).  Therefore I can differentiate and look for when the gradient will be undefined.

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I can see that this will be undefined when the denominator is zero.  Therefore:

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I can notice that all the vertices are are on the same lines, therefore I can simply choose n =9 to make my life easier, and then solve for t.   I use the fact that sine is an odd function to help here.

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Here p is an integer.  I’ll then rearrange the first of these two equations for t to show how I can then find my equations of the lines.

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If I now substitute this value of t back into my parametric equations I get:

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So, this will tell me the coordinates of the vertices of the “sharp points” of the graph.  Therefore the equation of the straight lines through these points and also through the origin are given by the first equation below. I can then choose my values of p (with p an integer) to get specific solutions.  For example when I choose p = 1 above I get the equation of a line which will pass through one of these vertices:

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Let’s check that this works:

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Yes!  So, we can use this method to find the other lines radiating from the centre.  This gives us our final spider web:

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So, there we go, a quick go at making a spider web – quite a simplistic pattern, but still utilising parametric equations, polar coordinates and also calculus and trigonometric equations.

 

 

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This is a nice example of using some maths to solve a puzzle from the mindyourdecisions youtube channel (screencaptures from the video).

How to Avoid The Troll: A Puzzle

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In these situations it’s best to look at the extreme case first so you get some idea of the problem.  If you are feeling particularly pessimistic you could assume that the troll is always going to be there.  Therefore you would head to the top of the barrier each time.  This situation is represented below:

The Pessimistic Solution:

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Another basic strategy would be the optimistic strategy.  Basically head in a straight line hoping that the troll is not there.  If it’s not, then the journey is only 2km.  If it is then you have to make a lengthy detour.  This situation is shown below:

The Optimistic Solution:

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The expected value was worked out here by doing 0.5 x (2) + 0.5 x (2 + root 2) = 2.71.

The question is now, is there a better strategy than either of these?  An obvious possibility is heading for the point halfway along where the barrier might be.  This would make a triangle of base 1 and height 1/2.  This has a hypotenuse of root (5/4).  In the best case scenario we would then have a total distance of 2 x root (5/4).  In the worst case scenario we would have a total distance of root(5/4) + 1/2 + root 2.  We find the expected value by multiply both by 0.5 and adding.  This gives 2.63 (2 dp).  But can we do any better?  Yes – by using some algebra and then optimising to find a minimum.

The Optimisation Solution:

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To minimise this function, we need to differentiate and find when the gradient is equal to zero, or draw a graph and look for the minimum.  Now, hopefully you can remember how to differentiate polynomials, so here I’ve used Wolfram Alpha to solve it for us.  Wolfram Alpha is incredibly powerful -and also very easy to use.  Here is what I entered:

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and here is the output:

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So, when we head for a point exactly 1/(2 root 2) up the potential barrier, we minimise the distance travelled to around 2.62 miles.

So, there we go, we have saved 0.21 miles from our most pessimistic model, and 0.01 miles from our best guess model of heading for the midpoint.  Not a huge difference – but nevertheless we’ll save ourselves a few seconds!

This is a good example of how an exploration could progress – once you get to the end you could then look at changing the question slightly, perhaps the troll is only 1/3 of the distance across?  Maybe the troll appears only 1/3 of the time?  Could you even generalise the results for when the troll is y distance away or appears z percent of the time?

Essential Resources for IB Teachers

1) Intermathematics.com

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If you are a teacher then please also visit my new site.  This has been designed specifically for teachers of mathematics at international schools.  The content now includes over 2000 pages of pdf content for the entire SL and HL Analysis syllabus and also the SL Applications syllabus.  Some of the content includes:

  1. Original pdf worksheets (with full worked solutions) designed to cover all the syllabus topics.  These make great homework sheets or in class worksheets – and are each designed to last between 40 minutes and 1 hour.
  2. Original Paper 3 investigations (with full worked solutions) to develop investigative techniques and support both the exploration and the Paper 3 examination.
  3. Over 150 pages of Coursework Guides to introduce students to the essentials behind getting an excellent mark on their exploration coursework.
  4. A large number of enrichment activities such as treasure hunts, quizzes, investigations, Desmos explorations, Python coding and more – to engage IB learners in the course.

There is also a lot more.  I think this could save teachers 200+ hours of preparation time in delivering an IB maths course – so it should be well worth exploring!

Essential Resources for both IB teachers and IB students

1) Exploration Guides and Paper 3 Resources

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I’ve put together a 168 page Super Exploration Guide to talk students and teachers through all aspects of producing an excellent coursework submission.  Students always make the same mistakes when doing their coursework – get the inside track from an IB moderator!  I have also made Paper 3 packs for HL Analysis and also Applications students to help prepare for their Paper 3 exams.  The Exploration Guides can be downloaded here and the Paper 3 Questions can be downloaded here.

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All content on this site has been written by Andrew Chambers (MSc. Mathematics, IB Mathematics Examiner).

New website for International teachers

I’ve just launched a brand new maths site for international schools – over 2000 pdf pages of resources to support IB teachers.  If you are an IB teacher this could save you 200+ hours of preparation time.

Explore here!

Free HL Paper 3 Questions

P3 investigation questions and fully typed mark scheme.  Packs for both Applications students and Analysis students.

Available to download here

IB Maths Super Exploration Guide

A Super Exploration Guide with 168 pages of essential advice from a current IB examiner to ensure you get great marks on your coursework.

Available to download here.

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